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In its inception university educated women actively chose to join Sendero. They were not coerced, but many scholars argue that as the organization entered the countryside and began to mobilize the rural populations, they used the impoverishment of the Andean people to introduce and enchant them with the idealism of Sendero.

Poverty had led the Andean people to desperation. This narrowed their options for opportunity and Sendero provided a chance to escape their realities. The rural women were drawn into Sendero by the promise of a changed life. Current scholarship implies that women were forced or tricked into joining Sendero, but I argue that they were not misled and that many women chose to join to obtain a sense of agency.

In order to understand the role that women played in Sendero I have analyzed their motivations to join. This paper will add to the scholarship on Peruvian women, demonstrate their decisions to join Sendero, and argue their relationship within the organization was complex.


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Al mismo tiempo busco comprender la importancia y significado del uso de algunas palabras en quechua. Scotland Long UPenn. In the West, the novel is viewed as the modern successor of the epic. I argue that the hybridity of Quechua verse and Spanish prose in the novel helps the reader appreciate the multiple temporalities and social and cultural practices that constitute the new Peruvian nation. Aliadas de la cultura elitista, estas academias se autoproclamaron como fundadoras de un canon literario. Sin embargo, una lectura atenta del corpus textual producido en el seno de dichas academias revela que la oralidad andina tuvo una sutil pero profunda influencia sobre ellas.

A new wave of Spanish arrivals in Peru has seen a dramatic growth in the last 3 years, a population of labor migrants seeking employment after the crisis. These immigrants enter the highly stratified Peruvian society with a different, high level of colonial social capital. This project will investigate local anxieties about race and class in relation to the ideological and historical contexts that have informed Hispano-Peruvian relations over time. To explore this question, this project specifically seeks to investigate how seemingly banal encounters reinforce larger processes of subject formation and social encounter, and serve as avenues through which ideologies of exclusion and inclusion in post- colonial settings are both asserted and transformed.

The project thus links macro-political forces with everyday encounters and potentially identify moments and tempos within the process of coloniality. The Nuevo Teatro combined Modernist forms and procedures with traditional artistic expressions. Campesino and indigenous performance played a vital role in this process.

From a political point of view, the ideas of Liberation Theology were an important source of critical thinking. The conjunction of European Modernist experimentalism with Bolivian forms and contents was a remarkable aspect of their work since the beginning. Consistent with patterns across Latin America, the Pentecostal evangelical population in Southern Peru continues to grow.

The proliferation of Pentecostalism in the religious landscape of Cusco positions Pentecostals against the commercialization and politicization of indigenous culture while simultaneously orienting them toward a Western political identity.

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Yet an examination of Pentecostal religious practices in Cusco disrupts what has come to be seen as an entrenched binary of Protestant-Catholic identities. This paper examines how contemporary Assemblies of God churches in Cusco city and province reject Andean-Catholic practices such as magic, liturgy, and traditional forms of community and social organization, while embracing idiosyncratic versions of such rituals. Specifically, Pentecostal abstention from alcohol and coca leaves and what they perceive to be the pagan practices of many of their Catholic neighbors often masks other forms of mysticism as expressed through Pentecostal practices such as glossolalia, prophecy, and healing rituals.

More broadly, this paper speculates regarding the future of religious studies in Latin America, especially how religious identity relates to political power both locally and broadly through the lens of the complex relationship of Andean-Catholics and evangelical Protestants in Southern Peru, which blurs lines between binaries of modernity and tradition, Western and indigenous, and mystical and authentic.

This presentation provides a new explication of Spanish empire construction as a bottom-up formative process, challenging the conventional top-down history of imperial law and legal practice. I suggest that indigenous understandings of possession generated a local re-inscription of imperial space as Andeans infused rituals of land possession with unique meaning when confronted with the loss of what came to be their homeland. Andeans understood well the notion and ritualistic nature of the Spanish legal tenets and rendered it with unique visual, performative, and symbolic expression.

In confronting the impending loss of livelihood and homeland, indigenous women led their men in deploying and mobilizing religious imagery, sabotaging official land surveys, and raising their voices in Quechua to stop the advance of colonial private landownership over indigenous lands. I analyze original legal writings that colonial caciques produced in the midst of land disputes, which reveal them as unique cultural translators and bring to light the role of indigenous women and men in subverting Spanish-sanctioned rituals of ownership in colonial Ecuador.

I, therefore, see Andean Studies benefitting from a localized perspective that acknowledges contemporary Andean understandings of justice as rooted in local knowledge, political rendering of religion, and the generative power of imminent cultural and social demise. Vasquez Toral Princeton. The presence of crossdressing in Peruvian traditional dances is usually masked by satire and comedy artifacts. However, this performative practice is paradoxically present in the context of religious festivities.

The Age of Túpac Amaru

The Fiesta de la Virgen del Carmen de Paucartambo showcases several dances that tell the story of this town; among those, the Qhaphaq Qolla dance is one of the most iconic. Aside from several Qolla characters, Qhaphaq Qolla includes a man dressed as a woman, popularly known as the imilla. The figure of the imilla is a distinctive form of crossdressing for two main reasons: it is present in a dance that is only performed by men; and the imilla is said to represent a religious deity such as the Virgen del Carmen herself.

The mix of the religious and the queer poses questions to the very elements of this dance and of its place in religious traditional dances in the Peruvian Andean region. This papers proposes to look at the figure of the imilla beyond the syncretic elements of the festivity and the dance she is part of. In doing so, I propose to understand the cross-dressed body of the imilla as challenging immediate gender roles in this festivity, which in turn challenges the very concept of tradition.

To facilitate this analysis, this paper includes fieldwork research done in the Fiesta de la Virgen del Carmen de Paucartambo. This paper will re-engage my LARR state-of-the-field essay, which appraised the historical and anthropological work on Bolivia that North American researchers had produced over the s and s.

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Painting the Canvas of the Great Andean Uprising: Recent Research on the Age of Tupac Amaru

A synopsis of that early reflective essay will be my point of departure for looking at post-structuralist and culturalist developments in Bolivian historiography after c. I exclude the recent explosion of studies in, and on, Bolivia, since the rise of Evo Morales — a topic for another panel.


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An oft repeated assumption is that in political struggles Indigenous voices disappear, and what we are left with are the actions of intermediaries who purportedly spoke out in defense of subaltern rights but in reality only desired to advance their own political, social, and economic interests. In essence, this perspective alleges that these intermediaries added another layer of exploitation to an already marginalized and silenced population. Careful studies, however, reveal that Indigenous activists did advance their own agendas, both alone as well as in collaboration with sympathetic urban allies.

Recovering subaltern voices, however, is complicated by a lack of written archival documentation that typically forms the basis for a scholarly examination of the past. Often this lack of documentation is not so much the fault of local organic intellectuals, but rather the racist attitudes of a dominant class who did not find their thoughts and actions worthy of preservation.

During the s, Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI agents conducted intelligence-gathering efforts against urban leftists in Latin America, but failed to do so on rural communities, thereby providing one stunning example of the historiographic consequences of such an omission.

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The United States intelligence apparatus never placed much importance on gaining a strong understanding of rural organizing efforts, or attempting to counter the potential threat that they might represent. The absence of scrutiny of this Indigenous federation reveals as much about the narrow assumptions and nature of United States intelligence gathering endeavors as does a study of where they chose to focus their surveillance efforts. Los corregidores correspondieron con todo su apoyo en este caso.

Junto a esto, el Virreinato pasaba por un momento delicado. Tan importante como esto era el hecho de que los mitayos no esperaban que sus kurakas les pidieran semejante trabajo. Colonialism and agrarian transformation in Bolivia , p. In: Resistance, rebellion, and consciousness in the Andean peasant world 18 th to 20 th centuries Steve J. Stern, ed. Challenges to spanish rule in eighteenth-century Southern Andes , p.

Funcionamiento de una encomienda peruana inicial , p. El documento fue donado a la biblioteca Bancroft en por Don G.